Kandybowicz (2008:37)

De Arbres

Kandybowicz établit que la particule ni: en nupe est une particule de focus:

 "ni: patterns like the focus marker o; it occupies a high position in the left periphery, 
 appears clause finally, and follows negation […]. 
 Additionally, ni: sentences have polarity focus interpretations, making them amenable to 
 analysis in terms of Foc°. 
 Furthermore, the morphemes ni: and o stand in complementary distribution, as seen below."

(24) a. * Musa ba nakàn ni: o.
Musa cut meat ni FOC
'Musa actually cut the meat.'
b. * Musa ba nakàn o ni:.
Musa cut meat FOC ni
Nupe, Kandybowicz (2008)

Or, cette particule de focus ni:, contrairement à la particule bez en breton, est compatible avec la négation:

 "[…] the morpheme ni:, whose semantic contribution is to reinforce the polarity 
 of the clause/add emphasis to the asserted truth or falsity of the sentence. 
 The distribution of ni: is similar to the distribution of negation; 
 both appear clause-finally."

(22) Musa ba nakàn ni:.
Musa cut meat ni
'Musa actually cut the meat.'
Nupe, Kandybowicz (2008)

 "[…] ni: and negation are able to co-occur, suggesting that they do not compete 
 for the same syntactic position. That is, the two morphemes are not in 
 complementary distribution, as shown below:"

(23) Musa ba nakàn à ni:.
Musa cut meat NEG ni
'Musa did not actually cut the meat.'
Nupe, Kandybowicz (2008)


  • Kandybowicz, J. 2008. The Grammar of Repetition, Nupe grammar at the syntax-phonology interface, John Benjamins Publishing Company.