Willis (1997)

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Willis, David. 1997. 'Clausal coordination and the loss of verb-second in Welsh', Oxford Working Papers in Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics 2, 151–72.

conclusion of the paper:
 "I have argued in this paper that the only empirically-adequate analysis of Middle Welsh coordination patterns requires that they be analysed as full CP-clauses. Apparent gaps in those clauses require the postulation of an empty category. Two candidates for such a category have been considered, pro and an empty operator. The former can be ruled out because the empty category fails to obey the licensing conditions on pro in Middle Welsh in a number of respects. A discourse-licensed empty operator on the other hand provides a good account of the environments in which these gaps are found. Cross-linguistic and internal diachronic evidence show that such an analysis of Middle Welsh as having an empty operator in coordinate structures fits well with a typology of such structures according to which languages may adopt and move historically between a highly restrictive ‘syntactic’ system of coordination and a much less restrictive ‘pragmatic’ one."


La phrase bretonne de Le Clerc p.158 dans l'article, traduite I saw a man and he came towards me, n'est pas une structure de coordination mais une relative du sujet en hag a. Le Clerc (p. 198 dans l'édition de 1908, et p.219, qui correspond à §249 dans l'édition de 1986) a noté, après la donnée en breton, "m. à m. j'ai vu un homme, et il venait à moi, ce qui n'est pas une traduction mais une tentative de glose: "m. à m." signifiant "mot-à-mot". Le Clerc pointait juste par ces gloses que le subordonnant est morphologiquement identique à la coordination ha(g), "ce qui donne à la proposition l'aspect d'une proposition coordonnée" sans qu'il s'agisse d'une structure de coordination.

(1) me am eus gwelet eun den hag a deue d'in. Tréguier, Le Clerc (1986:§249)
moi R.1SG a vu un homme que 1venait à'moi
'J'ai vu un homme qui venait vers moi.'