Tohono o'odham

De Arbres
Aller à : navigation, rechercher

Le tohono o'odham est une langue pima uto-aztèque parlée en Arizona dans la région de Tucson, et dans le nord-est de l'État de Sonora au Mexique.


Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété T2, c'est-à-dire que l'élément tensé ne peut normalement pas débuter le phrase.

 Kroch & Marshall (1973:80): 
 "Papago sentences always contain an auxiliary element which is inflected for the person and number of the subject, the aspect, and the tense. This element either occurs in 'second position' (as the second element in a simple sentence, where the 'first element' can consist of a single particle, a noun or verb, or a whole phrase), or in sentence initial position. If the auxiliary occurs sentence-initially, the first part is deleted (this also applies to some particles when sentence-initial.) Thus the 1st person singular, imperfective, non-future, 'normal mood' auxiliary /'añ/ is reduced to /ñ/ when occurring at the beginning of the sentence.
[...] Word order in Papago is largely free. Thus either the verb, subject or object can usually appear as the first word. But between the auxiliary and the verb the order of elements is constrained."

évitement de voyelles initiales

 Hale (2001a:1):
 "Particles are the only "part of speech" which has vowel-initial members. Since no sentence can be vowel initial, various strategies are employed to avoid this in the interaction between a vowel-initial particle and those forms of the auxiliary which avoid initial position, giving rise to the aux second order which prevails in O'odham finite clauses."

La description en anglais suivant est la suite de la citation:

The irrealis particle o (glossed FUT) either blocks aux-second or else employs the composite form w-o, with w- appearing in initial position.

(1)a. w-at o 'i gei.
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it is liable to fall.'

Where aux-second is blocked in the irrealis, and the w-o alternative is not taken, the auxiliary itself accommodates the situation by appearing with the complementizer ku-, and hence in "second position," the complementizer counting as initial.

(1)b. k-∅ hed*ai s*oak?.
'... who is crying.'

This ku-complementizer may itself delete, if the auxiliary base is overt, superficially leaving the auxiliary in initial position and stripped, so to speak, of the initial CV support element ('a-) which would ordinarily appear on an unprefixed auxiliary.

(1)c. (ku-)t o 'i gei.
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it would fall (generic).'

The particles as* 'just, merely' and as*kia 'still, yet,' actually block aux-second, giving the only true case in which the auxiliary must remain initial (thereby avoiding a vowel-initial sentence).

(1)d. 'o as*kia ko:s* g 'ali.
AUX3 still sleep:IMPERF ART child
'The child is still sleeping.'


On trouve aussi pour cette langue le nom papago qui est cependant dépréciatif. Ce terme papago n'est pas une auto-dénomination et signifie 'mangeurs de haricots'. Le terme tohono o'odham est une auto-dénomination qui signifie 'peuple du désert'.


  • Alvarez, Albert. The Expressions oI Papago, manuscrit non-publié.
  • Alvarez, Albert. The Sounds of Papago, manuscrit non-publié.
  • Alvarez, Albert. 1972. 'Appendix to Kenneth Hale, A New Perspective on American Indian Linguistics', Alfonso Ortiz (éd.), New Perspectives on the Pueblos, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 87-133.
  • Alvarez, Albert & Kenneth Hale. 1970. 'Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms', IJAL 36, 83-97.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1969. 'Papago cim', IJAL 35.203- 12
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1983. 'Papago (k)c', IJAL 49:3, 299-327.
  • Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', Phonology Yearbook 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. texte.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001a. 'Preliminary Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics O’odham (Papago) Particles', conf. paper at the SULA Conference, University of Massachusetts.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001b. 'O'odham Fronting'.
  • Hale, Ken & Ofelia Zepeda. (not dated). 'Tohono O'odham Nonverbal Predicates', handout.
  • Hili, J. H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1998. 'Le pluriel en tohono o'odham (papago)', Anthropological linguistics 40(1), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Anthropology Department, 1-42.
  • Kroch, Anthony S. & Byron Marshall. 1973. 'Movement Rules and Modal Expressions in Papago', International Journal of American Linguistics 39(2), Indiana University, 80-88.
  • Ojeda, Almerindo E. 1998. 'La sémantique des collectifs et des distributifs en papago', Natural Language Semantics 6(3), Dordrecht: Springer, 245-270.
  • Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches, Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
  • Voegelin, C. F. & F. M. Voegelin. 1970. 'Our Knowledge of Semantics and How It Is Obtained (With Reference to Hopi /ˀas/ and Papago /čim/)', International Journal of American Linguistics 36(4):241-246.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. A Tohono O'odham Grammar, University of Arizona Press.