Schrijver (2015)

De Arbres
  • Schrijver, Peter. 2015. 'The meaning of Celtic *eburos', Oudaer, Guillaume, Gaël Hily, and Herve Le Bihan (éds.), Mélanges en l'honneur de Pierre-Yves Lambert, Rennes: TIR, 65–76.

 "There is no doubt that Proto-Celtic possessed a phytonym *eburos. It survives as Old Irish ibar, Middle Welsh efwr, Middle Breton (h)evor. Although we lack control over their lexical meanings, numerous Continental Celtic names beginning with Ebur(o)- can be connected with this etymon, too. The general assumption is that the original meaning of the phytonym is 'yew tree': Sanz & al (2011:450-1), Matasović (2009:112), Sims-Williams (2006:78) and Delamarre (2003:159-60) are some of the most recent proponents of that idea. A notable exception is Dagmar Wodtko (2000), who did not assign a meaning to the proto-form. The aim of this paper is to show that *eburos did not mean 'yew tree'."
 proposal :
 "Proto-Celtic *eburos probably denoted 'rowan, Sorbus aucuparia'. This may be preserved in Continental Celtic on the evidence of the Germanic loan eber-boum, Eber-esche. In Insular Celtic, a new word for 'rowan' was adopted: Old Irish cáerthann, Middle Welsh kerddin, Modern Breton kerzhin. This set *eburos free to be used for other plants: 'buckthorn' in Breton because it too is woody and has berries; 'hogweed' in Welsh because of the similar inflorescence; and 'yew' in Irish because it has red edible 'berries'."

à propos

Les sources bretonnes modernes donnent evor 'bourdaine' ou 'ellébore' (ou "par erreur, aulne", cf. Menard & Bihan 2016-), et non pas 'if (arbre)'.

 Deshayes (2003):
 "Evor (heuor, 1633 ; euor, 1659), coll., 'bourdaine', correspond au gallois efwr, à l'irlandais iubhar (vieil irlandais ibar), au gaélique d'Ecosse iubhar et au gaulois eburos ; ces mots sont issus du celtique *eb-uro-. 
 Evoreg (évorek, 1821), s. f, 'lieu à bourdaine', de evor + -eg.

Schrijver (2015) dérive ce sens en postulant un emprunt indépendant au latin (h)elleborus.


  • Sanz Aragonés, Alberto, Carlos Tabernero Galan, Juan Pedro Benito Bataneo, Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel. 2011. 'Nueva divinidad céltica en un ara de Cuevos de Soria', Madrider Mitteilungen 52, 440-456.