- Matasović, Ranko. 2009. Etymological dictionnary of Proto-Celtic, Brill, Leyde.
*gargo- ‘rough’ [Adj] GOID: MIr. garg [o] GAUL: Gargenus Nom propre PIE: *gargo- (?) ‘horror’ (IEW: 353) COGN: OCS groza ‘horror’, Arm. karcr ‘hard’ ETYM: This is presumably an onomatopoetic, or expressive word, which may explain the a-vocalism in the root. The parallels in other IE languages may be accidental similarities. REF: EIEC 568, de Bernardo Stempel 1999: 501, Delamarre 175
*gexdo/ā- ‘goose’ [Noun] GOID: MIr. géd [o m] W: MW guit (GPC gwydd) [f] BRET: MBret. gwaz [f] CO: OCo. guit gl. auca, Co. goth ETYM: Presumably an onomatopoetic word, there is probably no connection to PIE *ǵʰeh₂-ns ‘goose’ (cf. PCelt. *gansi- ‘swan’). REF: GPC II: 1753, Deshayes 2003: 301, Lockwood 1981.
*klokko- ‘bell’ [Noun] GOlD: OIr. clocc [o m] W: MW cloch [f] BRET: MBret. cloch, MoBret. kloc'h [m] CO: OCo. cloch gl. clocca ETYM: Fr. cloche ‘bell’ < MLat. clocca was probably borrowed from the language of the Celtic missionaries in the early Middle Ages (clocca is first attested in the work of Adomnán in the 7th century). It is improbable that it is from Gaulish, cf. also Germ. Glocke. The PCelt. word is clearly onomatopoetic. REF: LEIA C-122f., GPC I: 502, Campanile 1974: 27f., Deshayes 2003: 399, Gamillscheg 237.
* lab(a)ro- ‘eloquent, talkative’ [Adj] GOID: OIr. labar [o] W: MW llafar ‘loud, resonant, talkative’ BRET: OBret. labar ‘talking’, MBret. lauaret ‘talk’, MoBret. lavar [m] ‘language, speech’ CO: OCo. lauar gl. sermo GAUL: Labarus, Labrios [PN] ETYM: In OIr., there is also the denominative deponent verb labraithir, -labrathar ‘talks’. Cf. the parallel formation of the antonyms W aflafar ‘mute’ and OIr. amlabar ‘mute’. These Celtic words may have been onomatopoetic in origin; the connection with ME flappen ‘hit’ suggested by IEW (831) is a mere possibility (if this is correct, the PCelt. form of the root was * flab- ), cf. also Germ. labern ‘babble’. REF: DGVB 236, Delamarre 194f., Deshayes 2003: 453, Zimmer 2000: 486, Meid 2005: 56.
*swizd-o- ‘blow’ [Vb] GOID: OIr. do-infet ‘blows, inspires’; do-r-infid [3s Pret. Relative]; do-r-infess [Pret. Pass. Relative] W: MW chwythu ‘blow, breathe’ BRET: MBret. huezaff, MoBret. c'hwezhañ ‘breathe’ CO: Co. hwytha PIE: *sweys-d- ‘hiss’ (IEW:104Of.) COGN: Gr. sízō, Russ. svistátʹ ETYM: OIr. do-infet < *to-eni-swisdo- (the simplex verb is unattested in Goidelic). These words are of onomatopoetic origin, so indepentent creations in different branches of IE cannot be excluded. REF: GPC I: 865, LIV 611ff., LP 395, LEIA S-100, Deshayes 2003: 164.
*yaro- ‘chicken, hen’ [Noun] W: OW iar, MW yar, iar [f] (GPC iâr, giâr); ieir, gieir [p] BRET: MBret. yar [f] CO: OCo. yar gl. gallina, Co. yar GAUL: laros [PN] ETYM: MIr. eirín(e) ‘chicken’ is related to these words, but details are unclear. All of these words might be related to Lat. pīpio ‘to cheep’, Skt. píppakā- ‘a species of bird’ and derived from something like *pipero- > PCelt. *fifero-. Of course, with such onomatopoetic roots, any comparison can be accidental. REF: GPC II: 2000, LP 78, Delamarre 186, Falileyev 89, Campanile 1974: 105, Deshayes 2003: 760, Stokes 1894: 223, Schrijver 1995: 104f.
* wasto- 'servant' [Noun] GOlD: Olr. foss [o m] W: OW guas, MW gwas [m]; gweision, gweis [p] BRET: MBret. -uuas, -guas [in PN], MoBret. gwaz 'man, husband' CO: Co. guas GAUL: * uassos > MLat. uassus (cf. Fr. vassal) ETYM: Olr. foss 'male servant' should be distinguished from Olr. joss [o m] 'rest, resting place'. Some linguists derive these words from PIE * upo-sth2-o- 'standing beneath', cf. Delamarre 307, IEW 1106. However, this proto-form should give PCelt. * ufo-sto- > * wosso-, from which we could derive Olr. foss 'rest, resting place', while PCelt. * wasto- must have a different etymology. See, however, PCelt. * wostu-. REF: GPC II: 1590f., EIEC 506, Delamarre 307, Falileyev 65, Uhlich 2002:415, Schrijver 1995:407.
* wiro- 'man' [Noun] GOID: Olr. fer [o m] W: OW gur, MW gwr [m] (GPC gŵr); gwŷr [f] BRET: OBret. -gur, MBret. gour CO: OCo. gur gl. uir, MCo. gour GAUL: Uiro-cantus [PN], Viro-mandui [Toponym] CELTIB: UIROS 'man' PIE: * wiHro- 'man' (IEW: 1177) COGN: Sanskrit vīrá-, Latin uir, Lithuanian rýras, Go. wair ETYM: Derivatives from this root include MW gwron 'hero' and Celtib. PN Vironus (* wiro-no-) and, probably, MW gwrdd 'strong' (* wiro-yo-). Germanic, Celtic, and Italic point to a short *i, with loss of the laryngeal, which is reconstructed on the basis of Lithuanian and Sanskrit forms. REF: GPC II:1693f., DGVB 201, EIEC 355,548, LHEB 337, de Bernardo Stempel 1999: 44, 230, Delamarre 32lf., Falileyev 76, Campanile 1974:59, Sims-Williams 2006: 124f., MLH V.1: 452f.