Mason (1990)

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  • Mason, Patricia E. 1990. 'The Pronouns of Address in Middle French', Studia Neophilologica 62:1, 95-100, texte.

 extrait de l'introduction:
 "In order to examine Middle French usage more closely, three texts not included in Gardner and Greene's study were selected for analysis. All were written between 1400 and 1470. The earliest is the Quinze Joies de Mariage, Antoine de la Sale's chivalric romance Jehan de Saintré was composed around 1455, and the Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles were compiled around 1460. 
 All three contain many conversational situations, which make them particularly suitable for this kind of study."

  • ms. 1400. Les Quinze Joies de Mariage, Jean Rychner (éd.), TLF, Geneva: Droz and Paris: Minard, 1963. (QJ)
  • ms. c. 1455. De la Sale, Antoine. Jehan de Saintré, Jean Misrahi & Charles A. Knudson (éds.), TLF (Geneva: Droz, 1965). (JS)
  • ms. c. 1460. Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, Paris: Garnier Frères. (CN)


 sur le vieux français, p. 95:
 "The Old French studies show that by the 13th century, V was established as the appropriate pronoun to use when addressing one's superiors, and it was also the standard pronoun of address used reciprocally among adult members of polite society, where even among relatives and friends it was the norm. T, on the other hand, seems to be reserved for prayer, and for addressing persons of junior status and social inferiors, and also for uncourtly creatures like dwarfs and giants, who gave T as well as receiving it. In addition to these norms, expressive or dramatic effects could be created by an unexpected pronoun use: using T, for example, to someone who would normally receive V, to indicate such temporary emotions as tenderness, hostility, or defiance on the part of the speaker towards the addressee."