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This page is meant to provide you with a global view of the scope of the Breton grammar ARBRES website, and help you to fully use its functionalities.
  
Cette page doit permettre de vous orienter sur le site, de vous donner une vue globale de son extension, et de vous expliquer comment ne pas rater des fonctionnalités intéressantes.
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  ARBRES is an interactive website that offers different type of resources for the study of the syntax of the Breton
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  language.
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  '''It aims at being''':
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  > a permanent up-to-date state-of-the-art of current researches
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  > an accurate and theoretically informed description of syntactic microvariation
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  > a pedagogical resource for workers of the Breton language
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  > an active international research tool
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  > a collaborative social experimentation organized around a highly endangered language
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  '''In order to reach these goals, ARBRES provides''':
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  > a full [[Grammaire du breton|grammar on-line]] of the Breton microdialectal variation, with a carefull description
 +
  of the dialectal and idiolectal facts and a description of the theoretical impact for our knowledge of grammar
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  (more than 870 articles).
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  > a French and English [[glossary]] of more than 250 terms of formal grammar, linked each to definitions illustrated
 +
  by Breton data.
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  > an [[centrale d'élicitations|Elicitation Center]] by which the international syntactic research community can co-built
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  protocols with a Breton expert, who operates next the elicitations and posts the protocol's results on-line.
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  > different crowd-sourcing aggregative projects for the study of the Breton language.
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 +
 
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  ARBRES uses the wiki technology and is fully open to collaborative writing and review.
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  Since 2017, ARBRES welcomes an average of 95 human visits a day.
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 +
== The Breton grammar on-line ==
  
 +
This website contains a full descriptive and formal grammar of the Breton language in all its [[variétés dialectales|dialectal varieties]].
  
== Lire la grammaire du breton en ligne ==
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It can be used like a classical printed grammar, by browsing the [[grammaire du breton|table of contents]], or by clicking directly on one of its major sections:
  
Ce site comprend une grammaire complète, descriptive et formelle, de la langue bretonne envisagée dans toutes ses [[variétés dialectales]].  
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  1. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Morphologie|Morphology]]
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  2. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Constituants|Constituents]]
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  3. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Syntaxe_de_la_phrase|Syntax of the sentence]]
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  4. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Structure_informationnelle|Information structure]]
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  5. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Discours|Discourse]]
  
Comme pour une grammaire en format papier, vous pouvez l'utiliser en lisant la [[grammaire du breton|table des matières]], ou en cliquant directement sur une des cinq grandes parties:
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These five major sections will remain accessible during your entire navigation, on the left panel of the screen, Under '''Grammaire du breton'''.
  
  1. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Morphologie|Morphologie]]
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Like a regular printed grammar, it can also be browsed at random, by clicking on [[Spécial:RandomInCategory/Catégorie:Articles|article au hasard]].
  2. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Constituants|Constituants]]
 
  3. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Syntaxe_de_la_phrase|Syntaxe de la phrase]]
 
  4. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Structure_informationnelle|Structure informationnelle]]
 
  5. [[Grammaire_du_breton#Discours|Discours]]
 
  
Durant toute votre navigation, ces cinq grandes parties restent cliquables dans la colonne de gauche de votre écran, dans le menu déroulant du cartouche '''Grammaire du breton'''.
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Unlike a regular printed grammar, it can be searched in numerically, via the search box in the upper right corner of the screen, in either English or French.  
  
Comme une grammaire en format papier, vous pouvez aussi la feuilleter au hasard, en cliquant sur [[Spécial:RandomInCategory/Catégorie:Articles|article au hasard]].
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Upon arriving at the article you want to consult, you will find first a brief summary with illustrative examples, followed by a table of contents. A typical article looks as follows:
 
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Comme il s'agit d'une grammaire numérique, vous pouvez aussi faire une recherche par mot-clef dans la boîte de recherche située en haut à droite de votre écran.  
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  <font color=blue><u>1. Morphology</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>1.1. <u>Accentuation</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>1.2. <u>Consonant mutations</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>1.3. <u>Gender, number, person </u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>2. Syntax</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>2.1. <u>Properties</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>2.2. <u>Distribution</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue>2.3. <u>Associated elements</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>3. Semantics </u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>4. Diachrony </u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>5. Typology</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>6. Terminology</u></font color=blue>
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  <font color=blue><u>7. Bibliography</u></font color=blue>
  
Vous trouverez un [[glossaire]] des termes techniques utilisés, en français et [[Glossaire_en_anglais|en anglais]]. Chaque mot y renvoie à un article explicatif des notions utilisées, illustrées avec des données en langue bretonne, glosées et traduites.
 
  
Une fois sur l'article que vous voulez consulter, vous trouverez en haut de page une description rapide, avec des exemples, suivi d'un sommaire de la page. Une page type est construite comme suit:
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=== Examples ===
 
  <font color=blue><u>1. Morphologie</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>1.1. <u>accentuation</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>1.2. <u>mutations consonantiques</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>1.3. <u>genre, nombre, personne </u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>2. Syntaxe</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>2.1. <u>propriétés</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>2.2. <u>distribution</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue>2.3. <u>éléments associés</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>3. Sémantique </u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>4. Diachronie </u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>5. Horizons comparatifs</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>6. Terminologie</u></font color=blue>
 
  <font color=blue><u>7. Bibliographie</u></font color=blue>
 
  
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Every example is numbered. The first line is in Breton. Below come glosses in French. Most glosses are active links, each leading to a full article with description and analysis. Glossing indicates partial morphological analysis, with [[affixes]] having their own active links. Super-scripted numbers in the glosses are also active links: they indicate the different [[consonant mutations]] ([[lenition]] in 1) that affect the initial consonants in Breton. The gloss line also indicates partial syntactic analysis, such as [[constituency]]. 
  
=== exemples ===
 
  
Chaque exemple est numéroté, et commence par la phrase en breton. La phrase est ensuite traduite en dessous mot-à-mots: ces gloses sont cliquables et amènent chacune à un article concernant l'élément cliqué. Ces liens sont créés à la main et il y a de bonnes chances que vous trouviez rapidement réponse à votre question. Les gloses comprennent des notations concernant la structure syntaxique. En (1), les crochets désignent le découpage en [[constituants]]. le superscript "<sup>[[1]]</sup>" note la présence d'une mutation consonantique, la [[lénition]]. Les gloses peuvent découper un mot en différents [[morphèmes]].
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For explanatory purposes, the examples here are glossed in English:
  
  
 
{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
| (1)|| Sevel a reas || ar paotr  || e zaoulagad …
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| (1)|| Sevel ||a reas || ar paotr  || e ||zaoulagad …
 
|-
 
|-
| || lev[[-el (V.)|er]] [[R]] [[ober|fit]]|| [[art|le]]  garçon <font color=green>[</font color=green><sub>[[VP]]</sub> _ || [[POSS|son]]<sup>[[1]]</sup> [[duel|2]].œil <font color=green>]</font color=green>
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| || [[sevel|raise]].[[-el (V.)|INF]] ||[[R]] [[ober|did]]|| [[art|the]]  boy <font color=green>[</font color=green><sub>[[VP]]</sub> _ || [[POSS|his]]<sup>[[1]]</sup> ||[[duel|2]].eye <font color=green>]</font color=green>
 
|-
 
|-
| || colspan="4" | 'Le garçon leva les yeux.'|||| ''Standard'', [[Drezen (1990)|Drezen (1990]]:23)
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| || colspan="4" | 'The boy raised his eyes.'|||| ''Standard Breton'', [[Drezen (1990)|Drezen (1990]]:23)
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
L'exemple finit par une traduction globale de la phrase en français. Parfois, lorsque c'est pertinent, on trouvera aussi une traduction en [[bretonnismes|français dialectal de Basse-Bretagne]], avant la traduction en français standard.  
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The example ends with a global translation for the Breton sentence. Sometimes, when relevant, an alternative translation in the [[bretonnismes|dialectal French of Low Brittany]] is provided above the translation in standard French.  
  
  
 
{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
|(1)|| Me am-eus c'hoant || da lavared || penaoz|| ema ar wirionez || gant ar skolaer! || ''Breton trégorrois''
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|(2)|| Me am-eus || c'hoant || da lavared || penaoz|| ema ar wirionez || gant ar skolaer! || ''Treger Breton''
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|-
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| || [[pfi|me]] [[R]]-1SG [[kaout|has]] ||[[c'hoant|impulse]] || [[da|to]] [[lavarout|say]] ||[[penaos|how]] || [[emañ|is]] [[art|the]] <sup>[[1]]</sup>[[gwirionez|truth]] || [[gant|avec]] [[art|le]] instituteur
 
|-
 
|-
| || [[pfi|moi]] [[R]].1SG [[kaout|a]] envie || [[da|de]] dire ||[[penaos|que]] || [[emañ|est]] [[art|le]] vérité || [[gant|avec]] [[art|le]] instituteur
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|||colspan="4" | 'I am inclined to say that the teacher is right.' |||||| ''English''
 
|-
 
|-
|||colspan="4" | 'Moi, j'ai envie de dire que la vérité est avec l'instituteur.||||''Français du Trégor'', [[Gros (1984)|Gros (1984]]:176)
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|||colspan="4" | 'Moi, j'ai envie de dire que la vérité est avec l'instituteur.'||||||''Treger French'', [[Gros (1984)|Gros (1984]]:176)
 
|-
 
|-
|||colspan="4" | 'Moi, je prétends que l'instituteur a raison.'|||| ''Français standard''
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|||colspan="4" | 'Moi, je prétends que l'instituteur a raison.'|||||| ''Standard French''
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
Lorsque ces données sont disponibles, on trouvera aussi une transcription en [[API|alphabet phonétique international]], signalée en vert pour plus de lisibilité.
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When available, an [[API|IPA]] transcription is also given, in green letters.
  
  
 
{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
| (4)|| <font color=green> [ wa kOmâsǝd ||<font color=green> ǝ rEzistâs || ||<font color=green> nEm fòrmo ]  
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| (3)|| <font color=green> [ wa kOmâsǝd ||<font color=green> ǝ rEzistâs || ||<font color=green> nEm fòrmo ]  
 
|-  
 
|-  
||| Oa komañset ||ar Rezistañs || <font color=green>[</font color=green> <sub>[[SC]]</sub>||en em furmañ <font color=green>]</font color=green>.  
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||| Oa komañset ||ar Rezistañs || ||en em furmañ.  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| || [[COP|était]] commenc[[-et (Adj.)|é]] ||[[art|le]] résistance ||||[[en em|se]] form[[-añ|er]]
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| || [[COP|was]] [[komañs|start]].[[-et (Adj.)|ed]] ||[[art|the]] résistance ||<font color=green>[</font color=green> <sub>[[SC]]</sub>||[[en em|reflexive]] form .[[-añ|INF]] <font color=green>]</font color=green>
 
|-  
 
|-  
|||colspan="4" | 'La résistance avait commencé à se former.' |||||||| ''Haute-Cornouaille'' (Lanvenegen), ||[[Evenou (1987)|Evenou (1987]]:627)
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|||colspan="4" | 'The resistance had started gathering.' |||||||| ''East-Kerne (Lanvenegen)'', ||[[Evenou (1987)|Evenou (1987]]:627)
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
L'exemple finit avec une typification de la variété dialectale utilisée (''en italiques''), et une référence précise à la page près de la source de la donnée. La référence de l'ouvrage source est cliquable, et vous amène à une fiche de référence de cet ouvrage, ici, la thèse de [[Evenou (1987)]].
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All examples end by indicating the dialectal variety (''in italics''), and a reference indicating the source. The reference is an active link, and directs to a separate bibliographic page, here the unpublished thesis of [[Evenou (1987)]].
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=== Reference pages ===
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Each example is linked to its precise source. Sources are active links toward a dedicated reference page. ARBRES contains
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: more than 160 articles of references for corpora of written and spoken Breton
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: more than 250 articles of references for research works, books and articles, about the language.
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Each reference is associated with (when available):
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 +
* complete bibliographical information
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* an active link toward the URL address of the reference
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* the publication history
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* an abstract or summary
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* reviews
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* identification of the dialect(s) used or discussed
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* erratum list
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* active links toward extracts of the reference (see for example: [[Kervella (1947)]])
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 +
A useful feature allows you to see exactly where a given reference has been cited within the  website. In the reference article, go to the '''Outils''' [tools] box and click on '''pages liées''' [linked pages]. You will get the list of items linking to the reference.
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 +
 
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=== Explore a topic ===
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 +
 
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After reading a given article, there are several options to explore further.
 +
 
  
=== références d'ouvrages ===
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* Try the clickable links inside the article to explore associated pages.
  
Ce site contient plus de 150 références de corpus de breton parlé et écrit, et plus de 200 références d'ouvrages de recherche sur la langue. A chaque référence de corpus ou d'ouvrage de recherche cité dans les articles est associée une page indépendante avec:
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* explore the bibliography:
 +
: If an article, a thesis or a book has been written on the topic, it should appear at the bottom of the page, in "bibliographie". If this work has not been mentioned (yet), go to the [[Bibliographie|general bibliography]] page in the Resource Center.
  
* la référence bibliographique précise et complète
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* Find other pages of the same category
* un lien actif vers l'adresse URL de l'ouvrage si disponible
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: Each article belongs to one or more category. For example, the article on ''[[kalz]]'', 'lot (of)', belongs to the categories [[determiner]], [[adverb]], [[quantifieur]] et [[indefinite]]. These are listed with links at the very bottom of the page.  
* des informations sur les différentes éditions de l'ouvrages
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: Clicking on a given category gives you the list of all the pages from the same category.
* le résumé de l'ouvrage si disponible
 
* des reviews de l'ouvrage parues dans des revues
 
* une typification dialectale rapide de l'auteur
 
* des listes d'erratum, notes prises au fil de la lecture.
 
* la liste cliquable des extraits tirés de cet ouvrage si ce site en contient
 
  
 +
* Leave comments or questions on the "discussion" page associated with each article:
 +
: I answer comments and questions in a timely manner. I update the website accordingly, provide explanations, or develop new tools.
  
Une fonctionnalité intéressante vous permet de voir précisément où un ouvrage est cité sur ce site. Ouvrez une page de référence données, puis cliquez à gauche de votre écran, dans le cartouche '''Outils''' sur '''pages liées'''. Vous obtiendrez la liste des pages du site contenant un lien vers cette référence.
 
  
=== approfondir un sujet ===
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=== cite  a page of this website ===
  
Après avoir lu un article, si vous voulez approfondir un sujet, il existe plusieurs options.
 
  
 +
I recommand the following format for citing this work:
  
* chercher dans l'article les liens cliquables vers les articles associés.
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* Jouitteau, M. (ed.) (2009-2019). 'title of the article', In ''ARBRES, site de recherche sur la syntaxe formelle de la microvariation syntaxique de la langue bretonne'', URL of the article, [date of access].
  
* chercher des références d'ouvrages de description ou de recherche:
 
: Si un article, une thèse ou un livre a été écrit sur le sujet, il devrait apparaître référencé dans la bibliographie en bas de page. Si ce travail n'a pas (encore) été fait, vous trouverez toutes les références dans la page de [[Bibliographie|bibliographie générale]] du site située dans le centre de ressources.
 
  
* chercher les pages du site de même type
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and if you wish to make reference to the entire ARBRES grammar:
: Chaque article est associée à des catégories. Par exemple, l'article sur ''[[kalz]]'', 'beaucoup', est associé aux catégories [[déterminant]], [[adverbe]], [[quantifieur]] et [[indéfini]]. On peut trouver ces catégories en toute fin d'article, en lien en bas de la page.
 
: Cliquer sur une catégorie vous obtient la liste de toutes les pages du site de cette même catégorie.
 
  
* laisser des commentaires ou des questions sur la page de discussion associée à chaque article:  
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* Jouitteau, M. (2009-2019). ''ARBRES, site de recherche sur la syntaxe formelle de la microvariation syntaxique de la langue bretonne'', http://arbres.iker.cnrs.fr.
: Je réponds aux commentaires et questions. Je corrige le site ou fournis des explications selon les besoins exprimés.
 
  
== Utiliser le centre de ressources ==
 
  
Le centre de ressources a pour vocation de regrouper tout le matériel nécessaire à une recherche. Il est toujours accessible dans la colonne de gauche de votre écran.
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== How to use the Resource Center ==
  
On y trouve des outils classiques. On y trouve aussi des outils moins classiques, rendus possible par le choix du numérique ou celui de la science ouverte.
 
  
 +
The Resource Center is meant to provide all type of information for research. It is always accessible through the left panel on the screen.
  
=== outils classiques ===
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It provides the classical tools of printed grammars, and some less classical ones deriving from the choice of the digital medium and of the Open Science research paradigm.
  
* une [[bibliographie|bibliographie générale]]
 
: Cette bibliographie, de volonté exhaustive et tenue à jour, donne les références bibliographiques complètes de la production scientifique et descriptive sur la morphosyntaxe du breton. On peut accéder directement au document si celui-ci est disponible en ligne. On voit facilement quel ouvrage est utilisé sur ce site. 
 
: Les revues spécialisées comme ''[[Hor Yezh]]'' ou ''[[La Bretagne Linguistique]]'' ont une page dédiée où toutes leurs parutions sont recensées.
 
  
* un [[glossaire]] de plus de 200 termes techniques utilisés en grammaire formelle, et sa version [[Glossaire en anglais|en anglais]]
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=== Classical Tools ===
: Pour connaitre l'équivalent français d'un terme en anglais, il suffit de cliquer sur ce terme en anglais. Le titre de page qui apparaît donne la traduction. A l'inverse, pour connaître l'équivalent anglais ou breton d'un terme en français, on peut se reporter à la partie ''terminologie'' des articles. 
 
  
* une liste des [[abréviations]] techniques utilisées, ainsi que les acronymes des corpus anciens et des gloses
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* a [[bibliographie|general bibliography]]
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: The bibliography is intended as a complete, up-to-date guide to the descriptive and scientific works on the syntax and morphosyntax of Breton. Whenever possible, active links are made available to documents on-line. The references used on the website are visible at a glance (they are active links toward the reference page). 
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: Specialized journals like ''[[Hor Yezh]]'' or ''[[La Bretagne Linguistique]]'' have a dedicated page listing their contents.
  
 +
* A [[glossaire en anglais|glossary]] of more than 250 technical terms used in formal grammar, and its version [[Glossaire|in French]]
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: In order to find the French translation of a term, follow the links in the English glossary - you will arrive at an article whose title is the French translation or appears in bold at the beginning of the article. For translation from French to English or Breton, search for the ''terminologie'' [terminology] subpart of the articles.
  
=== quoi de neuf? ===
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* A list of technical [[abréviations|abbreviations]], as well as traditional acronyms for corpora and glosses.
  
Ce site est évolutif, et permet de se tenir au courant de l'actualité de la syntaxe du breton, que ce soit de façon interne ou externe au site.
 
  
 +
=== What's new? ===
  
* une [[ARBRES:Actualités|page d'actualités]]
 
: J'y recense les appels à conférence, les ouvrages importants publiés dernièrement, l'actualité de la langue bretonne et aussi les derniers travaux effectués sur le site ARBRES.
 
  
* Il est aussi possible de suivre l'historique d'une page en particulier, ou de suivre les dernières modifications opérées sur ce site en cliquant sur "modifications récentes".
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This website is evolutive, and can be used to share news about the study of Breton, internal or external to the website.  
  
* une page de [[liens]] utiles vers d'autres sites:
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* A [[ARBRES:Actualités|news page]]  
: En [[Links in English|anglais]], [[Liammoù e Brezhoneg|breton]], [[Liens en Français|français]], différents [[liens]] permettent d'explorer l'étude du breton ou des langues minoritaires. Y sont aussi répertoriées les ressources électroniques en ou sur le breton.
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: Here I announce calls for papers, conferences, important publications, news about the Breton language and also the lastest works on the website.  
  
 +
* It is also possible to follow the history of one page in particular, or check the latest modifications on the website under ''Modifications Récentes''.
  
Ce site est participatif: vous pouvez poster vous-même des informations en [[ARBRES:Actualités|page d'actualités]], ajouter les nouvelles références en [[bibliographie]], ou enrichir les pages de [[liens]].
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* A page of useful external [[liens|links]]:
 +
: In [[Links in English|English]], [[Liammoù e Brezhoneg|Breton]], [[Liens en Français|French]], there are links to explore the study of Breton and to electronic resources on Breton, the Celtic languages, and minority languages in general.
  
=== trouver des phénomènes d'un dialecte en particulier ===
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This is a participative website: you can post informations in the [[ARBRES:Actualités|news page]], add new references in the [[bibliographie|bibliography]], or enrich the [[liens|links]] pages.
  
Les outils du centre de ressources sont pensés pour vous faciliter la tâche.
 
  
* trouver les corpus et les références adéquates
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=== Find out more about a particular dialect ===
: Les ouvrages de la [[bibliographie|bibliographie générale]] ont été localisés dialectalement sur une [http://maps.google.fr/maps/ms?hl=en&gl=fr&ie=UTF8&view=map&msa=0&msid=116403696732364065106.00046b5855852f51f82ff&ll=48.221013,-3.081665&spn=1.698195,4.943848&z=8 carte de type googlemap]. Ceci permet de visualiser la répartition géographique des ouvrages d'étude des différentes variétés du breton.
 
: Une grammaire propose une règle spéciale pour un dialecte et vous voulez la vérifier? La carte vous fournit visuellement les références des corpus les plus proches du dit dialecte.
 
  
* consulter dans le centre de ressources la [[liste des auteurs natifs d'un dialecte du breton]]
+
The tools of the Resource Center are meant to be of help.
: Cette liste permet de savoir quel auteur, et donc quel corpus peut être utilisé pour étudier une variété de langue en particulier.  
 
  
* consulter dans le centre de ressources la liste de différents [[corpus]] utilisables.
+
* Find corpora or references
: Cela servira à choisir en particulier le type de corpus que vous recherchez (audio transcrit, écrit, glosé, transcrit en [[API]], etc.)
+
: The dialects of works in the [[bibliographie|general bibliography]] have been geographically localized on a [http://maps.google.fr/maps/ms?hl=en&gl=fr&ie=UTF8&view=map&msa=0&msid=116403696732364065106.00046b5855852f51f82ff&ll=48.221013,-3.081665&spn=1.698195,4.943848&z=8 googlemap]. This lets you visualize the geographical distribution of works on different varieties of Breton.
 +
: A grammar gives a special feature for a dialect and you want to check the facts? The map helps you find references for corpora and grammars closest to this place.
  
 +
* Consult the [[liste des auteurs natifs d'un dialecte du breton|list of native Breton speakers who have produced corpora]], identified by dialect.
 +
: This list is far from exhaustive, but allows you to choose an author or work according to the dialect of interest.
  
=== utilisation for teaching ===
+
* Consult the list of different usable [[corpus|corpora]] in the Resource Center.
 +
: Provides references for audio transcripts, written, glossed, [[API|IPA]] transcripted corpora, etc.)
  
The are multiple funny clever ways to use this website in order to construct pedagogical contents :
+
* propose a protocol in the [[elicitation center]]
  
* There exists a page called "Catégorie:Désambiguïsations". Its regroups a cliquable list of ambiguous morphemes, that can have in Breton more than one meaning. This could provide for a good quizz material.
+
=== Learning ===
  
* specific maps of the [[ALBB|Linguistic Atlas of Low-Brittany]] have been integrated inside the articles, making it easy to build cartographic representations for a given topic.
 
  
* Why not propose a collaboration project with this website?
+
The system of clickable glosses makes of ARBRES a powerful tool for learning the language. One can surf from page to page, reading the Breton sentences and clicking on any item of the sentence she wants to learn more about.
  
 +
One can search a lexical item in one of the different orthographic systems, or under a mutated form, and still find the page.
  
== Open science ==
 
  
This website ARBRES is since 2009 an experimentation of open and participative science. This is an open research notebook. I have detailed this experimentation in an article: [[Jouitteau (2013b)]].
+
=== Teaching ===
  
  
=== open access ===
+
There are many funny clever ways to use this website in order to create pedagogical content. Here are two suggestions :
  
Open access asks for the results of research to be made available at the end of the process.  
+
* The page "Catégorie:Désambiguïsations" collects a clickable list of ambiguous morphemes, which have more than one meaning in Breton. This could provide for good quiz material.
  
The [[grammaire du breton|Breton grammar]] on this website is freely accessible, and the links toward other works made available on the web are also here collected.Some articles are available for download directly from this website.
+
* Specific maps of the [[ALBB|Linguistic Atlas of Low-Brittany]] have been integrated within articles, making it easy to build cartographic representations for a given topic.  
  
 +
* Why not propose a collaboration project with this website?
  
=== research on the doing ===
 
  
Research is at heart a process, a methodology accessible to anyone. One can see here research on the doing, with corrections, discussions, new hypotheses and perseverance.
+
== Open Science ==
  
* The '''tracability''' of this work is complete. Each page is associated with the history of any single modification brought ti it since its creation. One can go see in live how is science done, how new data or new publications change our hypotheses on the language.
 
  
* The '''raw results''' of elicitations are available in the [[centrale d'élicitations|elicitation center]].
+
This website ARBRES has been since 2009 an experiment of open and participative science. This is an open research notebook. I have discussed this experiment in an article: [[Jouitteau (2013b)]].
  
  
=== science citoyenne ===
+
=== Open Access ===  
  
The object of science is not reducible to its civic and social impact: science has its own internal legitimate goals. But when science can flourish in this civic and social dimension, why go without it?
 
  
* at the end of 2013, the organisation of the "race for the Breton language", [http://www.ar-redadeg.org/?lang=br Redadeg 2014], asked for the translation of ''I speak Breton, what about you?'' in as many languages as possible. Within a few days, linguists from the entire world jumped in with great joy and build the page ''[[I speak Breton, what about you?]]'', gathering linguistic information from more than 77 languages. The self-portraits of Breton speakers are now to be found [http://www.ar-redadeg.org/fr/blog/article/defi-1500-portraits-de-bretonnants here].  
+
Open access means that the results of research are to be made available at the end of the process of research.  
  
 +
The [[grammaire du breton|Breton grammar]] on this website is freely accessible, and collects links toward other works made available on the web. Some articles are available for download directly from this website.
  
=== science 2.0 ===
 
  
==== passive crowdsourcing ====
+
=== Research in the Making ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Research is at heart a process accessible to anyone. Here one can see research in the making, with contributions, corrections, discussions, and new hypotheses on the rise being tested.
 +
 
 +
* The '''traceability''' of this work is complete. Each page is associated with a complete history giving all modifications made to it since its creation. One can see live how is science done, how new data and new publications change our hypotheses .
 +
 
 +
* The '''raw results''' of elicitations are available in the [[centrale d'élicitations|Elicitation Center]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Science 2.0 ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==== Passive Crowdsourcing ====
  
 
This website is provided with [[Spécial:Pages_spéciales|internal statistical tools]] and with [https://www.google.fr/intl/fr/analytics/ google analytics].  
 
This website is provided with [[Spécial:Pages_spéciales|internal statistical tools]] and with [https://www.google.fr/intl/fr/analytics/ google analytics].  
This allows for a quite precise statistical representation of the way this website is been used.  
+
This allows for a rather precise statistical representation of the way this website is been used.  
This anonymized data, a flow of about 50 human visits a day, provides a first mean of feedback.
+
This anonymized data, a flow of about 55 human visits a day, provides a useful form of feedback.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==== Active Crowdsourcing ====
 +
 +
The new digital tools allow for both '''cumulative collaboration''' (massive aggregation of small contributions into a single architecture), and a '''distributive collaboration''' (with differentiated tasks).
 +
 
 +
This project raises the question of your place in the process. You can help the project at many different levels. Will you take part?
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=== Science for Everyone ===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The object of science is not reducible to its civic and social impact: science has legitimate goals internal to itself. But when science can flourish in the civic and social dimensions as well, why do without?
  
==== active crowdsourcing ====
+
* At the end of 2013, the organisers of the "Race for Breton", [http://www.ar-redadeg.org/?lang=br Redadeg 2014] asked for the translation of ''I speak Breton, what about you?'' in as many languages as possible. Within a few days, linguists from the whole world joined in with great joy and built the page ''[[I speak Breton, what about you?]]'', gathering linguistic information from more than 77 languages. 1695 Breton speakers made self-portraits using these sentences, and posted them on the web to support the race for the Breton language.
 
   
 
   
The new numeric tools allow for both '''cumulative collaboration''' (massive aggregate of small contributions into the right architecture), and a '''distributive collaboration''' (with differenciated tasks).
+
* [[Comment participer?|How to take part?]]
  
This website adresses you the question of your location in the process. You can help the project at different many levels. Will you do it?
 
  
 +
== Bibliography ==
  
== Le projet ARBRES d'Atlas ==
+
[[Jouitteau (2013b)|Jouitteau, M. 2013b]], 'La linguistique comme science ouverte; Une expérience de recherche citoyenne à carnets ouverts sur la grammaire du breton', ''[http://lapurdum.revues.org/ Lapurdum]'' XVI,  Charles Videgain (dir.), 93-115, [http://lapurdum.revues.org/2357 texte en ligne].
  
Le cartouche '''projet ARBRES''' décrit le projet d'Atlas de la variation syntaxique des dialectes de la langue bretonne. Vous y trouverez une [[description du projet ARBRES|description générale du projet d'atlas]], une fiche qui explique comment participer au projet, et une liste des [[fiches thématiques|prévisions de collecte]]. 
 
  
Ces [[fiches thématiques]] concernent toutes un redoublement de marques grammaticales, et sont renseignées à but de collecte systématique sur le  domaine parlant. Le collectage des marques de redoublement à travers les langues d'Europe est un projet [http://www.dialectsyntax.org/wiki/Welcome Edisyn].
 
  
  
 
[[Category:méta|Categories]]
 
[[Category:méta|Categories]]

Version actuelle datée du 14 juillet 2020 à 12:49

version en français

This page is meant to provide you with a global view of the scope of the Breton grammar ARBRES website, and help you to fully use its functionalities.

 ARBRES is an interactive website that offers different type of resources for the study of the syntax of the Breton
 language. 
 
 It aims at being:
 > a permanent up-to-date state-of-the-art of current researches 
 > an accurate and theoretically informed description of syntactic microvariation 
 > a pedagogical resource for workers of the Breton language
 > an active international research tool
 > a collaborative social experimentation organized around a highly endangered language 
 
 In order to reach these goals, ARBRES provides:
 > a full grammar on-line of the Breton microdialectal variation, with a carefull description 
 of the dialectal and idiolectal facts and a description of the theoretical impact for our knowledge of grammar 
 (more than 870 articles). 
 > a French and English glossary of more than 250 terms of formal grammar, linked each to definitions illustrated 
 by Breton data. 
 > an Elicitation Center by which the international syntactic research community can co-built 
 protocols with a Breton expert, who operates next the elicitations and posts the protocol's results on-line.
 > different crowd-sourcing aggregative projects for the study of the Breton language.
 
 
 ARBRES uses the wiki technology and is fully open to collaborative writing and review. 
 
 Since 2017, ARBRES welcomes an average of 95 human visits a day.  
 

The Breton grammar on-line

This website contains a full descriptive and formal grammar of the Breton language in all its dialectal varieties.

It can be used like a classical printed grammar, by browsing the table of contents, or by clicking directly on one of its major sections:

 1. Morphology 
 2. Constituents
 3. Syntax of the sentence
 4. Information structure
 5. Discourse

These five major sections will remain accessible during your entire navigation, on the left panel of the screen, Under Grammaire du breton.

Like a regular printed grammar, it can also be browsed at random, by clicking on article au hasard.

Unlike a regular printed grammar, it can be searched in numerically, via the search box in the upper right corner of the screen, in either English or French.

Upon arriving at the article you want to consult, you will find first a brief summary with illustrative examples, followed by a table of contents. A typical article looks as follows:

 1. Morphology
 1.1. Accentuation
 1.2. Consonant mutations
 1.3. Gender, number, person 
 2. Syntax
 2.1. Properties
 2.2. Distribution
 2.3. Associated elements
 3. Semantics 
 4. Diachrony 
 5. Typology
 6. Terminology
 7. Bibliography


Examples

Every example is numbered. The first line is in Breton. Below come glosses in French. Most glosses are active links, each leading to a full article with description and analysis. Glossing indicates partial morphological analysis, with affixes having their own active links. Super-scripted numbers in the glosses are also active links: they indicate the different consonant mutations (lenition in 1) that affect the initial consonants in Breton. The gloss line also indicates partial syntactic analysis, such as constituency.


For explanatory purposes, the examples here are glossed in English:


(1) Sevel a reas ar paotr e zaoulagad …
raise.INF R did the boy [VP _ his1 2.eye ]
'The boy raised his eyes.' Standard Breton, Drezen (1990:23)


The example ends with a global translation for the Breton sentence. Sometimes, when relevant, an alternative translation in the dialectal French of Low Brittany is provided above the translation in standard French.


(2) Me am-eus c'hoant da lavared penaoz ema ar wirionez gant ar skolaer! Treger Breton
me R-1SG has impulse to say how is the 1truth avec le instituteur
'I am inclined to say that the teacher is right.' English
'Moi, j'ai envie de dire que la vérité est avec l'instituteur.' Treger French, Gros (1984:176)
'Moi, je prétends que l'instituteur a raison.' Standard French


When available, an IPA transcription is also given, in green letters.


(3) [ wa kOmâsǝd ǝ rEzistâs nEm fòrmo ]
Oa komañset ar Rezistañs en em furmañ.
was start.ed the résistance [ SC reflexive form .INF ]
'The resistance had started gathering.' East-Kerne (Lanvenegen), Evenou (1987:627)


All examples end by indicating the dialectal variety (in italics), and a reference indicating the source. The reference is an active link, and directs to a separate bibliographic page, here the unpublished thesis of Evenou (1987).

Reference pages

Each example is linked to its precise source. Sources are active links toward a dedicated reference page. ARBRES contains

more than 160 articles of references for corpora of written and spoken Breton
more than 250 articles of references for research works, books and articles, about the language.

Each reference is associated with (when available):

  • complete bibliographical information
  • an active link toward the URL address of the reference
  • the publication history
  • an abstract or summary
  • reviews
  • identification of the dialect(s) used or discussed
  • erratum list
  • active links toward extracts of the reference (see for example: Kervella (1947))

A useful feature allows you to see exactly where a given reference has been cited within the website. In the reference article, go to the Outils [tools] box and click on pages liées [linked pages]. You will get the list of items linking to the reference.


Explore a topic

After reading a given article, there are several options to explore further.


  • Try the clickable links inside the article to explore associated pages.
  • explore the bibliography:
If an article, a thesis or a book has been written on the topic, it should appear at the bottom of the page, in "bibliographie". If this work has not been mentioned (yet), go to the general bibliography page in the Resource Center.
  • Find other pages of the same category
Each article belongs to one or more category. For example, the article on kalz, 'lot (of)', belongs to the categories determiner, adverb, quantifieur et indefinite. These are listed with links at the very bottom of the page.
Clicking on a given category gives you the list of all the pages from the same category.
  • Leave comments or questions on the "discussion" page associated with each article:
I answer comments and questions in a timely manner. I update the website accordingly, provide explanations, or develop new tools.


cite a page of this website

I recommand the following format for citing this work:

  • Jouitteau, M. (ed.) (2009-2019). 'title of the article', In ARBRES, site de recherche sur la syntaxe formelle de la microvariation syntaxique de la langue bretonne, URL of the article, [date of access].


and if you wish to make reference to the entire ARBRES grammar:

  • Jouitteau, M. (2009-2019). ARBRES, site de recherche sur la syntaxe formelle de la microvariation syntaxique de la langue bretonne, http://arbres.iker.cnrs.fr.


How to use the Resource Center

The Resource Center is meant to provide all type of information for research. It is always accessible through the left panel on the screen.

It provides the classical tools of printed grammars, and some less classical ones deriving from the choice of the digital medium and of the Open Science research paradigm.


Classical Tools

The bibliography is intended as a complete, up-to-date guide to the descriptive and scientific works on the syntax and morphosyntax of Breton. Whenever possible, active links are made available to documents on-line. The references used on the website are visible at a glance (they are active links toward the reference page).
Specialized journals like Hor Yezh or La Bretagne Linguistique have a dedicated page listing their contents.
  • A glossary of more than 250 technical terms used in formal grammar, and its version in French
In order to find the French translation of a term, follow the links in the English glossary - you will arrive at an article whose title is the French translation or appears in bold at the beginning of the article. For translation from French to English or Breton, search for the terminologie [terminology] subpart of the articles.
  • A list of technical abbreviations, as well as traditional acronyms for corpora and glosses.


What's new?

This website is evolutive, and can be used to share news about the study of Breton, internal or external to the website.

Here I announce calls for papers, conferences, important publications, news about the Breton language and also the lastest works on the website.
  • It is also possible to follow the history of one page in particular, or check the latest modifications on the website under Modifications Récentes.
  • A page of useful external links:
In English, Breton, French, there are links to explore the study of Breton and to electronic resources on Breton, the Celtic languages, and minority languages in general.

This is a participative website: you can post informations in the news page, add new references in the bibliography, or enrich the links pages.


Find out more about a particular dialect

The tools of the Resource Center are meant to be of help.

  • Find corpora or references
The dialects of works in the general bibliography have been geographically localized on a googlemap. This lets you visualize the geographical distribution of works on different varieties of Breton.
A grammar gives a special feature for a dialect and you want to check the facts? The map helps you find references for corpora and grammars closest to this place.
This list is far from exhaustive, but allows you to choose an author or work according to the dialect of interest.
  • Consult the list of different usable corpora in the Resource Center.
Provides references for audio transcripts, written, glossed, IPA transcripted corpora, etc.)

Learning

The system of clickable glosses makes of ARBRES a powerful tool for learning the language. One can surf from page to page, reading the Breton sentences and clicking on any item of the sentence she wants to learn more about.

One can search a lexical item in one of the different orthographic systems, or under a mutated form, and still find the page.


Teaching

There are many funny clever ways to use this website in order to create pedagogical content. Here are two suggestions :

  • The page "Catégorie:Désambiguïsations" collects a clickable list of ambiguous morphemes, which have more than one meaning in Breton. This could provide for good quiz material.
  • Specific maps of the Linguistic Atlas of Low-Brittany have been integrated within articles, making it easy to build cartographic representations for a given topic.
  • Why not propose a collaboration project with this website?


Open Science

This website ARBRES has been since 2009 an experiment of open and participative science. This is an open research notebook. I have discussed this experiment in an article: Jouitteau (2013b).


Open Access

Open access means that the results of research are to be made available at the end of the process of research.

The Breton grammar on this website is freely accessible, and collects links toward other works made available on the web. Some articles are available for download directly from this website.


Research in the Making

Research is at heart a process accessible to anyone. Here one can see research in the making, with contributions, corrections, discussions, and new hypotheses on the rise being tested.

  • The traceability of this work is complete. Each page is associated with a complete history giving all modifications made to it since its creation. One can see live how is science done, how new data and new publications change our hypotheses .


Science 2.0

Passive Crowdsourcing

This website is provided with internal statistical tools and with google analytics. This allows for a rather precise statistical representation of the way this website is been used. This anonymized data, a flow of about 55 human visits a day, provides a useful form of feedback.


Active Crowdsourcing

The new digital tools allow for both cumulative collaboration (massive aggregation of small contributions into a single architecture), and a distributive collaboration (with differentiated tasks).

This project raises the question of your place in the process. You can help the project at many different levels. Will you take part?


Science for Everyone

The object of science is not reducible to its civic and social impact: science has legitimate goals internal to itself. But when science can flourish in the civic and social dimensions as well, why do without?

  • At the end of 2013, the organisers of the "Race for Breton", Redadeg 2014 asked for the translation of I speak Breton, what about you? in as many languages as possible. Within a few days, linguists from the whole world joined in with great joy and built the page I speak Breton, what about you?, gathering linguistic information from more than 77 languages. 1695 Breton speakers made self-portraits using these sentences, and posted them on the web to support the race for the Breton language.


Bibliography

Jouitteau, M. 2013b, 'La linguistique comme science ouverte; Une expérience de recherche citoyenne à carnets ouverts sur la grammaire du breton', Lapurdum XVI, Charles Videgain (dir.), 93-115, texte en ligne.