Tohono o'odham : Différence entre versions

De Arbres
Aller à : Navigation, rechercher
(approche grammaticale)
Ligne 10 : Ligne 10 :
 
C'est une langue ''pro''-drop ('' 'Amai 'o ke:k'', /here AUX standing/, 'It is standing right there', Zepeda 1983:17).
 
C'est une langue ''pro''-drop ('' 'Amai 'o ke:k'', /here AUX standing/, 'It is standing right there', Zepeda 1983:17).
  
L'accord en nombre avec le sujet apparaît sur le verbe, pas sur l'auxiliaire. L'accord en personne apparaît sur l'auxiliaire.
+
L'auxiliaire s'accorde en personne et en nombre. Un accord en nombre avec le sujet apparaît sur le verbe lexical.
  
  
 
{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
| (1) ||<u>'I:da 'o'odham</u> || ''''ñeok'''. || vs. || <u>'Idam cecoj</u> || ''''ñeñok'''.  
+
| (1) ||'A:ni ||'''''''|| s-ba:bigi || '''ñeok'''.  
 
|-
 
|-
||| this person || is/was speaking.SG || || these boys || is/was speaking.PL
+
||| I || is/was.1 || slowly || speaking.SG
 
|-  
 
|-  
| ||colspan="4" |'This person is/was speaking', vs. 'These boys are/were speaking.'
+
| ||colspan="4" |'I am speaking slowly.'|||| ''Tohono O'odham'', Zepeda (1983:18)
|-
+
| ||||||colspan="4" | ''Tohono O'odham'', Zepeda (1983:10)
+
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
 
{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
| (2) ||'A:ni ||'''''''|| s-ba:bigi || '''ñeok'''.  
+
| (2) ||<u>'I:da 'o'odham</u> || ''''ñeok'''. || vs. || <u>'Idam cecoj</u> || ''''ñeñok'''.  
 
|-
 
|-
||| I || is/was.1 || slowly || speaking.SG
+
||| this person || is/was speaking.SG || || these boys || is/was speaking.PL
 
|-  
 
|-  
| ||colspan="4" |'I am speaking slowly.'|||| ''Tohono O'odham'', Zepeda (1983:18)
+
| ||colspan="4" |'This person is/was speaking', vs. 'These boys are/were speaking.'
 +
|-
 +
| ||||||colspan="4" | ''Tohono O'odham'', Zepeda (1983:10)
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
== langue à auxiliaire second ==
 
== langue à auxiliaire second ==

Version du 18 novembre 2019 à 16:51

Le tohono o'odham est une langue pima uto-aztèque parlée en Arizona dans la région de Tucson, et dans le nord-est de l'État de Sonora au Mexique.

Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété T2, c'est-à-dire que l'élément tensé ne peut normalement pas débuter le phrase.


Syntaxe

approche grammaticale

C'est une langue pro-drop ( 'Amai 'o ke:k, /here AUX standing/, 'It is standing right there', Zepeda 1983:17).

L'auxiliaire s'accorde en personne et en nombre. Un accord en nombre avec le sujet apparaît sur le verbe lexical.


(1) 'A:ni ' s-ba:bigi ñeok.
I is/was.1 slowly speaking.SG
'I am speaking slowly.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:18)


(2) 'I:da 'o'odham 'o ñeok. vs. 'Idam cecoj 'o ñeñok.
this person is/was speaking.SG these boys is/was speaking.PL
'This person is/was speaking', vs. 'These boys are/were speaking.'
Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:10)

langue à auxiliaire second

 Kroch & Marshall (1973:80): 
 "Papago sentences always contain an auxiliary element which is inflected for the person and number of the subject, the aspect, and the tense. This element either occurs in 'second position' (as the second element in a simple sentence, where the 'first element' can consist of a single particle, a noun or verb, or a whole phrase), or in sentence initial position. If the auxiliary occurs sentence-initially, the first part is deleted (this also applies to some particles when sentence-initial.) Thus the 1st person singular, imperfective, non-future, 'normal mood' auxiliary /'añ/ is reduced to /ñ/ when occurring at the beginning of the sentence.
[...] Word order in Papago is largely free. Thus either the verb, subject or object can usually appear as the first word. But between the auxiliary and the verb the order of elements is constrained."
 Hale (1983:302):
 "prefixed AUX regularly appears in clause-initial position, while a prefixless AUX is, almost without exception, placed in "second position".


négation, pas de localité

Lorsque la négation est à l'initiale, le verbe peut être, dans le champ postverbal, plus haut que son sujet (les éléments du champ postverbal sont connus pour avoir un ordre plutôt libre).


(1) pi 'o ñeok 'i:da 'o'odham.
NEG is/was speaking this person
'This person is/was not speaking.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:8-9)


Cependant, seul le sujet peut atteindre l'initiale lorsque la négation est projetée. Le verbe ne peut pas être antéposé. C'est peut-être dû au fait qu'il porte les traits d'accord du sujet.


(2) 'I:da 'o'odham 'o pi ñeok.
this person is/was NEG speaking
'This person is/was not speaking.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:8-9)


(3) * Ñeok 'o pi 'i:da 'o'odham.
speaking is/was NEG this person
'This person is/was not speaking.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:8-9)


T2 linéaire

Les têtes fonctionnelles peuvent remplir l'initiale devant l'auxiliaire. En (5), l'auxiliaire fusionne avec la tête Q et perd son stop glottal (').


(4) Hegai kawyu 'o med.
this horse is/was running
'This horse is running.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:14)


(5) No hegai kawyu med?
Q-Is/was this horse running
'Is/was this horse running?' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:14)


examples de T1

particules à voyelles initiales

 Zepeda (1983:19):
"When you use the particle aş (just), it must follow the auxiliary, and in this case, the auxiliary may come first in the sentence, contrary to our general rule."


(2) (Hegam) 'o ñeñok (hegam).
they is/was.1 just speaking.PL they
'They are /were just speaking.' Tohono O'odham, Zepeda (1983:19)


 Hale (2001a:1):
 "The particles as* 'just, merely' and as*kia 'still, yet,' actually block aux-second, giving the only true case in which the auxiliary must remain initial (thereby avoiding a vowel-initial sentence)." 


(3) 'o as*kia ko:s* g 'ali.
AUX3 still sleep:IMPERF ART child
'The child is still sleeping.' O'odham, Hale (2001a:1)


L'adverbe pourrait être le signe qu'une particule remplit l'initiale. La particule as*kia, selon Hale (2001a:1), ne tolère pas d'élément préverbal réalisé. La particule est cependant compatible avec un pronom sujet à l'initiale dans la donnée de Zepeda (1983:19).


autres?

(1) 'Ant o wáko g ñ-kótoñ c ñ-lí:wa.
AUX.1SG IRR to.wash-PFV DET 1S.POSS-shirt CNJ 1S.POSS-jacket
'I will wash my shirt and my jacket.', Tohono O'odham, Fitzgerald (2019) citant (Zepeda 1988:77)


(2) Nt o hu: hegai mat g Huan hascu 'i gatwi.
AUX FUT eat:PERF that SUBORDAUX ART John what ever shoot:PERF
'I'll eat whatever John shot.' Papago, Hale (1983:310), = (his 24)


(3) Pt o s-ko'okam e-ju:, sa 'i ge:s-k.
AUX FUT s-hurtfully self-do:PERF, if INCEP fall:PERF-PART
'You'll hurt yourself if you fall.' Papago, Hale (1983:311), = (his 25b)

évitement de voyelles initiales

 Hale (2001a:1):
 "Particles are the only "part of speech" which has vowel-initial members. Since no sentence can be vowel initial, various strategies are employed to avoid this in the interaction between a vowel-initial particle and those forms of the auxiliary which avoid initial position, giving rise to the aux second order which prevails in O'odham finite clauses."

La description en anglais suivante est la suite de la citation:

The irrealis particle o (glossed FUT) either blocks aux-second or else employs the composite form w-o, with w- appearing in initial position.


(1)a. w-at o 'i gei.
w-tAUX3 FUT INCEP fall:PERF
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it is liable to fall.' O'odham, Hale (2001a:1)


Where aux-second is blocked in the irrealis, and the w-o alternative is not taken, the auxiliary itself accommodates the situation by appearing with the complementizer ku-, and hence in "second position," the complementizer counting as initial.


(1)b. k-∅ hed*ai s*oak?.
COMP-AUX3 who cry:IMPERF
'... who is crying.' O'odham, Hale (2001a:1)


This ku-complementizer may itself delete, if the auxiliary base is overt, superficially leaving the auxiliary in initial position and stripped, so to speak, of the initial CV support element ('a-) which would ordinarily appear on an unprefixed auxiliary.


(1)c. (ku-)t o 'i gei.
(COMP)-tAUX3 FUT INCEP fall:PERF
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it would fall (generic).' O'odham, Hale (2001a:1)


Terminologie

On trouve aussi pour cette langue le nom papago qui est cependant dépréciatif. Ce terme papago n'est pas une auto-dénomination et signifie 'mangeurs de haricots'. Le terme tohono o'odham est une auto-dénomination qui signifie 'peuple du désert'.


Bibliographie

  • Alvarez, Albert. The Expressions oI Papago, manuscrit non-publié.
  • Alvarez, Albert. The Sounds of Papago, manuscrit non-publié.
  • Alvarez, Albert. 1972. 'Appendix to Kenneth Hale, A New Perspective on American Indian Linguistics', Alfonso Ortiz (éd.), New Perspectives on the Pueblos, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 87-133.
  • Alvarez, Albert & Kenneth Hale. 1970. 'Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms', IJAL 36, 83-97.
  • Alvarez, Albert & Kenneth Hale (n.d.). 'O'odham Particles', ms. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
  • Bahr, Donald M. 1986. 'Pima-Papago -ga, "Alienability"', International Journal of American Linguistics 52(2), University of Chicago Press, 161-171.
  • Choi, Yujeong. 2011. 'A Study of Evidentiality in Tohono O'odham', Ms. Arlington, TX:University of Texas at Arlington.
  • Copley, Bridget. 2005. 'When the actual world isn't inertial: Tohono O'odham cem', M. Becker & A. McKenzie (éds.), 3rd Conference on the Semantics of Underrepresented Languages in the America 33, pp. 1-18. Amherst:University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen. M. 1994. 'Prosody drives the Syntax', S. Gahl, A. Dolbey, & C. Johnson (éds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 173-183.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 1997. O'odham Rhythms, University of Arizona PhD dissertation. texte.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 1998. 'The meter of Tohono O'odham songs', International Journal of American Linguistics 64(1). 1–36.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 2002. 'Tohono O'odham stress in a single ranking', Phonology 19(2), 253-271. texte.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 2003. 'Word Order and Discourse Genre in Tohono O'odham', A. Carnie, H. Harley, & M. Willie (eds.), Formal Approaches to Function in Grammar: In Honor of Eloise Jelinek, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 179-189.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 2012. 'Prosodic Inconsistency in Tohono O'odham', International Journal of American Linguistics 78:4, 435-63.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. 2013. 'Revisiting Tohono O'odham high vowels', S. Bischoff, D. & Cole, A. Fountain and Mizuki Miyashita (éds.), Constructing the past and confronting the present in the voices of Jane H. Hill, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 128–151.
  • Fitzgerald, Colleen M. & Lori McLain Pierce. 2012. 'Narrative and Prosodic Phrasing in Tohono O'odham', paper presented at the Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages, Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America. Portland, OR.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1961. 'Pima-Papago recordings.' Mss.Rec.39. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1969. 'Papago cim', International Journal of American Linguistics 35: 203–212.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1975. 'Papago intonation and word order', ms. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1982. 'Preliminary remarks on configurationality', Proceedings of NELS 12, 86-96.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1983. 'Papago (k)c', International Journal of American Linguistics 49:3: 299-327.
  • Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', Phonology Yearbook 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. texte.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001a. 'Preliminary Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics O'odham (Papago) Particles', présentation à Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas. University of Massachusetts. texte.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001b. 'O'odham Fronting'. handout dated June 27, 2001. Ms. Cambridge, MA: MIT. texte.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2002. 'On the position of the auxiliary in O'odham', Xabier Artiagoitia, Patxi Goenaga & Joseba A. Lakarra (éds.), Erramu Boneta: Festschrift for Rudolf P.G. de Rijk. Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca “Julio de Urquijo”, Bilbao, Spain: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 303-309.
  • Hale, Ken & Ofelia Zepeda. (not dated). 'Tohono O'odham Nonverbal Predicates', handout.
  • Hill, Jane H. 1994. 'Fast and Slow in Tohono O'odham', Zarina Estrada (éd.), II Encuentro sobre Lingüistica en el Noroeste, Hermosillo, Sonora: Universidad de Sonora, 249-268.
  • Hill, Jane H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1998. 'Le pluriel en tohono o'odham (papago)', Anthropological linguistics 40(1), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Anthropology Department, 1-42.
  • Jackson, Eric M. 2002. The stative s-morpheme in Pima, University of California, Los Angeles, PhD dissertation.
  • Kroch, Anthony S. & Byron Marshall. 1973. 'Movement Rules and Modal Expressions in Papago', International Journal of American Linguistics 39(2), Indiana University, 80-88.
  • Mathiot, Madeleine. 1962. 'Noun Classes and Folk Taxonomy in Papago', American Anthropologist 64(2), American Anthropological Association, 340-350.
  • Miyashita, Mizuki, Richard Demers & Delbert Ortiz. 2003. 'Grammatical Relations in Tohono O'odham: an Instrumental Perspective', Simin Karimi (éd.), Word Order and Scrambling, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd, 44-66.
  • Ojeda, Almerindo E. 1998. 'La sémantique des collectifs et des distributifs en papago', Natural Language Semantics 6(3), Dordrecht: Springer, 245-270.
  • Payne, Doris L. 1987. 'Information structuring in Papago narrative discourse', Language 63, 783-804.
  • Payne, Doris L. 1992. 'Nonidentifiable information and pragmatic order rules in 'O'odham', Doris L. Payne (éd.), Pragmatics of word order flexibility, 137-166. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Saxton, Dean, Lucille Saxton & Susie Enos. 1989. Dictionary, Papago/Pima-English, O'otham-Milgahn. Second edition. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches, Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
  • Smith, Marcus. 2004a. A Pre-group Grammar for a Non-configurational Language, UCLA ms. texte.
  • Smith, Marcus. 2012. 'Pima Quantifiers', Edward Keenan and Denis Paperno (éds.), Handbook of Quantifiers in Natural Language, Springer Netherlands, 699-727.
  • Voegelin, C. F. & F. M. Voegelin. 1970. 'Our Knowledge of Semantics and How It Is Obtained (With Reference to Hopi /ˀas/ and Papago /čim/)', International Journal of American Linguistics 36(4):241-246.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. A Tohono O'odham Grammar, University of Arizona Press.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 1988. A Papago Grammar, Tucson: University of Arizona Press.