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== Syntaxe ==
== Syntaxe ==
Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété [[V2]].
Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété [[T2]], c'est-à-dire que l'élément tensé ne peut normalmeent pas débuter le phrase.
   Hale (2001:1):
   Hale (2001:1):

Version du 14 novembre 2019 à 12:25

Le tohono o'odham est une langue pima uto-aztèque parlée en Arizona dans la région de Tucson, et dans le nord-est de l'État de Sonora au Mexique.


Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété T2, c'est-à-dire que l'élément tensé ne peut normalmeent pas débuter le phrase.

 Hale (2001:1):
 "Particles are the only "part of speech" which has vowel-initial members. Since no sentence can be vowel initial, various strategies are employed to avoid this in the interaction between a vowel-initial particle and those forms of the auxiliary which avoid initial position, giving rise to the aux second order which prevails in O'odham finite clauses."

La description en anglais suivant est la suite de la citation:

The irrealis particle o (glossed FUT) either blocks aux-second or else employs the composite form w-o, with w- appearing in initial position.

(1)a. w-at o 'i gei.
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it is liable to fall.'

Where aux-second is blocked in the irrealis, and the w-o alternative is not taken, the auxiliary itself accommodates the situation by appearing with the complementizer ku-, and hence in "second position," the complementizer counting as initial.

(1)b. k-∅ hed*ai s*oak?.
'... who is crying.'

This ku-complementizer may itself delete, if the auxiliary base is overt, superficially leaving the auxiliary in initial position and stripped, so to speak, of the initial CV support element ('a-) which would ordinarily appear on an unprefixed auxiliary.

(1)c. (ku-)t o 'i gei.
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it would fall (generic).'

The particles as* 'just, merely' and as*kia 'still, yet,' actually block aux-second, giving the only true case in which the auxiliary must remain initial (thereby avoiding a vowel-initial sentence).

(1)d. 'o as*kia ko:s* g 'ali.
AUX3 still sleep:IMPERF ART child
'The child is still sleeping.'


On trouve aussi pour cette langue le nom papago qui est cependant dépréciatif. Le terme papago n'est pas une auto-dénomination et signifie 'mangeurs de haricots'. Le terme tohono o'odham est une auto-dénomination qui signifie 'peuple du désert'.


  • Alverez, Albert & Kenneth Hale. [antérieur à Voegelin & Voegelin 1970]. 'Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms', IJAL 36.83-97.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1983. 'Papago (k)c', IJAL 49:3, 299-327.
  • Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', Phonology Yearbook 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. [ texte].
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001. 'Preliminary Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics O’odham (Papago) Particles', conf. paper at the SULA Conference, University of Massachusetts.
  • Hili, J. H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1998. 'Le pluriel en tohono o'odham (papago)', Anthropological linguistics 40(1), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Anthropology Department, 1-42.
  • Ojeda, Almerindo E. 1998. 'La sémantique des collectifs et des distributifs en papago', Natural Language Semantics 6(3), Dordrecht: Springer, 245-270.
  • Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches, Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
  • Voegelin, C. F. & F. M. Voegelin. 1970. 'Our Knowledge of Semantics and How It Is Obtained (With Reference to Hopi /ˀas/ and Papago /čim/)', International Journal of American Linguistics 36(4):241-246.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. A Tohono O'odham Grammar, University of Arizona Press.