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Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété [[V2]].
 
Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété [[V2]].
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  Hale (2001:1):
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  "Particles are the only "part of speech" which has vowel-initial members. Since no sentence can be vowel initial, various strategies are employed to avoid this in the interaction between a vowel-initial particle and those forms of the auxiliary which avoid initial position, giving rise to the aux second order which prevails in O'odham finite clauses.
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  The irrealis particle ''o'' (glossed FUT) either blocks aux-second or else employs the composite form ''w-o'', with ''w-'' appearing in initial position.
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{| class="prettytable"
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| (1)a. ||'''w'''-at || '''o''' ||'i ||gei.
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|-
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|||w-tAUX3 || FUT ||INCEP || fall:PERF
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|-
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| ||colspan="4" |'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it is liable to fall.'
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|}
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Where aux-second is blocked in the irrealis, and the ''w-o'' alternative is not taken, the auxiliary itself accommodates the situation by appearing with the complementizer ''ku-'', and hence in "second position," the complementizer counting as initial.
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{| class="prettytable"
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| (1)b. || '''k'''-∅ || hed*ai ||s*oak?.
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|-
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|||COMP-AUX3|| who || cry:IMPERF
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|-
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| ||colspan="4" |'... who is crying.'
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|}
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This ''ku''-complementizer may itself delete, if the auxiliary base is overt, superficially leaving the auxiliary in initial position and stripped, so to speak, of the initial CV support element ('a-) which would ordinarily appear on an unprefixed auxiliary.
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{| class="prettytable"
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| (1)c. ||(ku-)t || o ||'i|| gei.
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|-
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|||(COMP)-tAUX3 || FUT|| INCEP|| fall:PERF
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|-
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| ||colspan="4" |'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it would fall (generic).'
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|}
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The particles ''as*'' 'just, merely' and ''as*kia'' 'still, yet,' actually block aux-second, giving the only true case in which the auxiliary must remain initial (thereby avoiding a vowel-initial sentence).
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{| class="prettytable"
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| (1)d. ||'o || as*kia || ko:s* ||g 'ali.
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|-
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|||AUX3 || still ||sleep:IMPERF ||ART child
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|-
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| ||colspan="4" |'The child is still sleeping.'
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|}
  
  
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== Bibliographie ==
 
== Bibliographie ==
  
* Hale, Kenneth L.  
+
 
 +
* Alverez, Albert & Kenneth Hale. [antérieur à Voegelin & Voegelin 1970]. 'Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms', ''IJAL'' 36.83-97.
 +
 
 +
* Hale, Kenneth L. 1983. 'Papago (k)c', ''IJAL'' 49:3, 299-327.
  
 
* Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', ''Phonology Yearbook'' 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. [www.jstor.org/stable/4615414 texte].
 
* Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', ''Phonology Yearbook'' 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. [www.jstor.org/stable/4615414 texte].
 +
 +
* Hale, Kenneth L. 2001. 'Preliminary Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics O’odham (Papago) Particles', conf. paper at the SULA Conference, University of Massachusetts.
 +
 +
* Hili, J. H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1998. 'Le pluriel en tohono o'odham (papago)', ''Anthropological linguistics'' 40(1), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Anthropology Department, 1-42.
 +
 +
* Ojeda, Almerindo E. 1998. 'La sémantique des collectifs et des distributifs en papago', ''Natural Language Semantics'' 6(3), Dordrecht: Springer, 245-270.
  
 
* Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', ''Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches'', Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
 
* Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', ''Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches'', Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
 +
 +
* Voegelin, C. F. & F. M. Voegelin. 1970. 'Our Knowledge of Semantics and How It Is Obtained (With Reference to Hopi /ˀas/ and Papago /čim/)', ''International Journal of American Linguistics'' 36(4):241-246.
  
 
* Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. ''A Tohono O'odham Grammar'', University of Arizona Press.
 
* Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. ''A Tohono O'odham Grammar'', University of Arizona Press.
 +
  
  
 
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Version du 14 novembre 2019 à 12:23

Le tohono o'odham est une langue pima uto-aztèque parlée en Arizona dans la région de Tucson, et dans le nord-est de l'État de Sonora au Mexique.

Syntaxe

Le tohono o'odham partage avec le breton la propriété V2.

 Hale (2001:1):
 "Particles are the only "part of speech" which has vowel-initial members. Since no sentence can be vowel initial, various strategies are employed to avoid this in the interaction between a vowel-initial particle and those forms of the auxiliary which avoid initial position, giving rise to the aux second order which prevails in O'odham finite clauses. 
 The irrealis particle o (glossed FUT) either blocks aux-second or else employs the composite form w-o, with w- appearing in initial position. 


(1)a. w-at o 'i gei.
w-tAUX3 FUT INCEP fall:PERF
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it is liable to fall.'


Where aux-second is blocked in the irrealis, and the w-o alternative is not taken, the auxiliary itself accommodates the situation by appearing with the complementizer ku-, and hence in "second position," the complementizer counting as initial.


(1)b. k-∅ hed*ai s*oak?.
COMP-AUX3 who cry:IMPERF
'... who is crying.'


This ku-complementizer may itself delete, if the auxiliary base is overt, superficially leaving the auxiliary in initial position and stripped, so to speak, of the initial CV support element ('a-) which would ordinarily appear on an unprefixed auxiliary.


(1)c. (ku-)t o 'i gei.
(COMP)-tAUX3 FUT INCEP fall:PERF
'He/she/it will fall.', 'He/she/it would fall (generic).'


The particles as* 'just, merely' and as*kia 'still, yet,' actually block aux-second, giving the only true case in which the auxiliary must remain initial (thereby avoiding a vowel-initial sentence).


(1)d. 'o as*kia ko:s* g 'ali.
AUX3 still sleep:IMPERF ART child
'The child is still sleeping.'


Termonilogie

On trouve aussi pour cette langue le nom papago qui est cependant dépréciatif. Le terme papago n'est pas une auto-dénomination et signifie 'mangeurs de haricots'. Le terme tohono o'odham est une auto-dénomination qui signifie 'peuple du désert'.


Bibliographie

  • Alverez, Albert & Kenneth Hale. [antérieur à Voegelin & Voegelin 1970]. 'Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms', IJAL 36.83-97.
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 1983. 'Papago (k)c', IJAL 49:3, 299-327.
  • Hale, Kenneth & Elisabeth Selkirk. 1987. 'Government and Tonal Phrasing in Papago', Phonology Yearbook 4, Cambridge University Press, 151–183. [www.jstor.org/stable/4615414 texte].
  • Hale, Kenneth L. 2001. 'Preliminary Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics O’odham (Papago) Particles', conf. paper at the SULA Conference, University of Massachusetts.
  • Hili, J. H. & Zepeda, Ofelia. 1998. 'Le pluriel en tohono o'odham (papago)', Anthropological linguistics 40(1), Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Anthropology Department, 1-42.
  • Ojeda, Almerindo E. 1998. 'La sémantique des collectifs et des distributifs en papago', Natural Language Semantics 6(3), Dordrecht: Springer, 245-270.
  • Saxton, Dean. 1982. 'Papago', Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 3: Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches, Ronald W. Langacker, ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics Series. Arlington: University of Texas, 94-266.
  • Voegelin, C. F. & F. M. Voegelin. 1970. 'Our Knowledge of Semantics and How It Is Obtained (With Reference to Hopi /ˀas/ and Papago /čim/)', International Journal of American Linguistics 36(4):241-246.
  • Zepeda, Ofelia. 2016. A Tohono O'odham Grammar, University of Arizona Press.